The government shutdown went into effect at midnight because House Republicans insisted on including measures to defund the Affordable Care Act.
Below are some of the effects on veterans. In a nutshell, the impact on most veterans will be minimal if Congress can pull itself together and do its job and pass appropriations legislation soon. Claims processing of Board of Veterans Appeals has now ceased, and claims processors' overtime to reduce the claims backlog has also ended. If the shutdown lasts into later in October, most if not all veterans benefits payments will also cease. Healthcare services will continue, however.
Here's a quick Q&A on the government shutdown: http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/30/politics/government-shutdown-up-to-speed/index.html
FROM THE VA:
Appropriations Lapse Plan
Information for VA Employees*************
FROM THE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION: